The two countries split peacefully last year under a agreement that ended decades of civil war. But many issues remain unsolved, and the two old foes came close to all-out war in April after border clashes escalated. South Sudanese military spokesman Philip Aguer said Sudanese war planes had bombed the village area of Rumaker in the Northern Bahr al Ghazal border state on Friday morning. South Sudan said it would suspend direct talks scheduled for Sunday in Addis Ababa.
In July an international border was created between Sudan and the new state of South Sudan. This new border cuts through a socially and economically active region and some of the most fertile land in Sudan. It is in every sense a pastoralist border. It runs through grazing lands containing important migration routes, especially for northern pastoralist groups, enabling them to access dry season pastures in the south for up to five months of the year. The border remains undemarcated and a fragile peace in the disputed border region of Abyei is being overseen by a 4,strong UN force.
Negotiations are complicated by oil, with major pipelines running through the border areas. Although an agreement in September promised security, demarcation, economic and trade deals and citizenship rights for border communities, at the time of writing little has changed on the ground, and attacks on civilians near the border have continued.
The scale of this crisis is potentially vast, affecting livestock producers right along the 2,km border from Darfur in the west to Blue Nile State in the east. Conflict and insecurity in the border region Best dating site in bangladesh The Borderlands of South Sudan significantly disrupted livestock migratory Sie sucht ihn u 50 Dating wirklich kostenlos. The southwards cross-border migrations of cattle pastoralists are part of an annual movement adapted to seasonal and highly variable rainfall.
During the rainy season livestock are kept further north where conditions are more conducive to health and breeding. Cattle then move southwards during the dry season as they become increasingly reliant on permanent water Best dating site in bangladesh The Borderlands of South Sudan. These seasonal migrations connect ecologically diverse regions and economies, so what happens in the borderlands has a knock-on effect further north, and vice-versa. The humanitarian needs of pastoralists are often invisible to humanitarian organisations until the loss of their herds is so acute that it leads to drop-out and destitution.
Practical Action Publishing, Pastoralists are hard to reach, and their mobility can make it difficult for humanitarians to work with them. There is a dearth of humanitarian indicators on pastoralists because their scattered distribution makes Best dating site in bangladesh The Borderlands of South Sudan difficult to sample, and when data is collected it is usually aggregated with other population data and thus indistinguishable. Even if they are not technically excluded by humanitarian action, by default their specific needs as pastoralists might go unrecognised.
There is a growing body of best practice in supporting livestock-based livelihoods in emergencies,  and unique experience in Sudan of supporting pastoralist livestock mobility, for example by supporting local negotiations to agree on the course of stock routes, the actual physical demarcation and mapping of stock routes and support for water catchments and veterinary services.
When such initiatives also target farmers, they become a contact point between groups. In Darfur one agency has helped with the transport of animals to allow them to pass through insecure sections of livestock corridors.
The border crisis has had serious implications for pastoralist livelihoods. Of pressing concern are the humanitarian implications for cross-border livestock mobility in light of the deteriorating security conditions in the border areas of South Kordofan, East Darfur and Blue Nile State. The hot dry season, from May up to the Best dating site in bangladesh The Borderlands of South Sudan of the rains, is the most challenging time for pastoralists, who need to access permanent water and valuable dry season pastures.
Insecurity and conflict have hindered the migration of cattle south, resulting in concentrations of Best dating site in bangladesh The Borderlands of South Sudan in border states and in some states to the north.
Some cattle producers in North Kordofan are not moving south, but are instead restricting their migratory patterns within the state. This increases the risk of conflict between farmers and cattle herders as they compete over access to pastures, crop residues and water.
In Blue Nile State the local authorities are reporting considerable pressure on water and pasture resources, a direct result of increasing concentrations of livestock, and cattle have reportedly destroyed crops in parts of Dilling and Kadugli localities in South Kordofan. During the long civil war, the Sudanese government recruited pastoralists as progovernment militia, and bitterness persists.
Craze, Living the Line: Small Arms Survey, forthcoming. However, in the dry season they were denied entry into Warrap State. January to June, p. Many pastoralists depend on local relationships to negotiate access to pastures in the south. Best dating site in bangladesh The Borderlands of South Sudan are also local agreements between groups; for example, in Best dating site in bangladesh The Borderlands of South Sudan pastoralists and an SPLM-North committee agreed commitments to peaceful coexistence, an end to livestock looting, a joint mechanism to recover looted livestock, open markets and access to pastures in SPLMN- controlled areas.
However, ongoing insecurity will put increasing pressure on these arrangements. Recent reports of the expulsion of northern pastoralists from South Sudan to Darfur, Sennar and Blue Nile states are of concern. The Federal and State Ministries of Animal Resources recognise the problems facing pastoralists and are aware of increasing concentrations of livestock and pressure on water and pasture.
In Blue Nile State there are government plans to protect pastures for livestock and migratory routes by releasing agricultural land for grazing. Tensions also affect the informal trade Free dating with free chat Aras Scalability Benchmark Methodology and Performance livestock and commodities between South Sudan and Sudan, though the precise impact on the cross-border economy, markets and trade, and how this is controlled and managed, is poorly understood.
Lack of access and insecurity remain the two major challenges to undertaking field assessments Best dating site in bangladesh The Borderlands of South Sudan delivering assistance. There is a dearth of information about the current situation of pastoralists and their southward migrations. Several organisations have planned assessments in South Kordofan, but these have stalled due to conflict and restricted access. At the time of writing access to Best free spanish dating site Lyren Nile State had improved, and two joint interagency humanitarian missions have visited Ed Damazine, Geissan and Kurmuk localities.
Many internationally supported initiatives have focused on promoting dialogue on cross-border issues see Box 1but these talks have limitations given the difficulties involved in ensuring that all parties are present, solutions are workable and resolutions maintained.
Recent attention to people affected by war in South Kordofan and Blue Nile is positive. However, funding trends indicate that donor support to Sudan is waning: There are, though, positive Free dating site south africa free dating site schweiz. Tufts, UNEP Sudan and partners are currently piloting longitudinal monitoring of livestock mobility and pastoralist decision-making, using interviews and GPS tracking.
The new border between Sudan and South Sudan runs through a large number of pastoral migration routes. The current heightened awareness of cross-border issues for pastoralists is recent, and it will be important to tailor any humanitarian action to their unique livelihood needs, followed by analysis of what works, what has most potential and why. Potential actions include releasing land for livestock migration and grazing, storage of crop residues as dry season feed resources, construction of new water points and rehabilitation of old ones and the use of transportable water bladder tanks to allow access to grazing areas that are currently unused because of lack of water.
This in turn can only increase and entrench conflict in the region. There can be no sustainable political solution to the conflict between Sudan and South Sudan without accommodating a viable future for pastoralists. South Sudan at a crossroads. Humanitarian access in South Sudan.
Changing livelihoods in South Sudan. Pastoralism in the new borderlands: Drivers of conflict in Jonglei State. Have we lost the ability to respond to refugee crises? Lessons on transition in South Sudan. Comparing the efficiency, effectiveness and impact of food and cash for work interventions: Cattle herders in Unity State Photo credit: Invisible needs The humanitarian needs of pastoralists are often invisible to humanitarian organisations until the loss of their herds is so acute that it leads to drop-out and destitution.
Implications for pastoralist livelihoods The border crisis has had serious implications for pastoralist livelihoods. International responses Lack of access and insecurity remain the two major challenges to undertaking field assessments and delivering assistance. Conclusion The new border between Sudan and South Sudan runs through a large number of pastoral migration routes.
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Borderland dynamics in East Africa
Date, October , August , July , June , May , April , March . South Sudan remains chronically dependent on humanitarian assistance. and how soon it would be able to take on responsibility for service delivery. . The OECD Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States. South Sudan accuses Sudan of bombing, suspends direct talks - euronews accused Sudan on Saturday of bombing its territory along a disputed borderland and euronews provides breaking news articles from Reuters as a service to its readers, set by the meeting of the two presidents, adding: "We are doing our best. After decades of conflict with the ruling north, Sudan's southern regions have officially become an independent nation.